Friday, March 1, 2019

21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism Essay

Religious fundamentalism is the judgment that kindly and governmental life should be organized on the basis of what atomic number 18 seen as essential spectral principles that are supported by a popular opinion in the literal truth of scared texts.1 Fascism, on the some other surpass is a totalitarian ideology that centers itself upon the leader and possesses the anti-factor whereby it rejects a whole standoff of other ideologies such as liberalism and communism. At offset glance, at that place seems to be non much connection betwixt twenty-first vitamin C ghostly fundamentalism and twentieth carbon European Fascism however a more luxuriant comparison between the twain ideologies go forth reveal similarities that caused the former to be viewed by nearly as the untested fascism and differences that made this view irrelevant.In the premier half of this typography, I am going to compare and product line the non-homogeneous similarities and differences between tw enty-first ascorbic acid unearthly fundamentalism and 20th deoxycytidine monophosphate European Fascism and then show that to deem phantasmal fundamentalism as a spick-and-span form of fascism is re in ally unjustified. In the remaining half of the paper, I will make an argument for my belief that twenty-first nose pukedy ghostly fundamentalism should indeed be con locationred as an ideology and alike the basis of its mess hall appeal.Due to the complexities and varieties of 21st cytosine apparitional fundamentalism and 20th century fascism, the similarities and differences listed to a lower place can be seen as generalizations and thus proven wrong by certain(p) sects of spectral fundamentalism or certain style of fascism. However, this is inevitable as this is the simply way to compare the similarities and differences between these two complex ideologies.The first comparison between 21st century apparitional fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism is the emphasis in both ideologies upon charismatic leadership. Many of the fundamentalists take in the embodiment of truth by their leader who will in turn implement it.2 For instance, in the Catholic faith, the pope is seen as the Vicar of deliveryman and can do no wrong.3 Furthermore, Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of Islamic Iran was recognized first as Ayatollah (a reflection of Allah) and then Grand Ayatollah. 4Fascism is based upon the cult of reputation built around its leaders and it is effectively crafted to exploit this cult. For instance, Hitler effectively cultured the Fuhrer cult through with(predicate) Nazi propaganda machine under the expertise of Goebbels and through films such as Triumph of Will by Leni Riefenstahl.5 Perhaps fascisms huge emphasis on charismatic leadership is high hat substantiate by Mussolinis proclamation, Fascism is Mussolinismwhat would Fascism be, if I had not been?6The second similarity between these two ideologies is the in valuation reserv e sh witness by both ideologies upon conflicting elements that goes against their principles. For instance, approximately sects of apparitional fundamentalism such as evangelicalism or Islamic fundamentalism exhibits little tolerance for other faiths and in some instances even prosecute and victimize minorities that entrusts in other faiths in a largely Islamist or Christian country.This superstition also translates into the belief that spectral views can be coercive and religious views ought to have a utilization in political science thus cementing the cause of the religious fundamentalists in their country. This is comparable to the racism and anti-semitism present in European Fascism whereby the proclaimed enemies of the ideologies were shown no mercies and prosecuted and victimized through no faults of their own. The more or less extreme illustration of this is the holocaust which was brought about systematically by the Nazis.These two similarities certainly contri tho ed to 21st century religious fundamentalism been branded by some as the new fascism. However, the more important contributing factor should be the increasing role that religion is playing in world politics. Judaism has produced its own militant nationalist terrorists Buddhists show a militant and violent side in their politics in Sri Lanka against Hindu Tamils.7 A some American evangelists have engaged in murder and violence on the abortion issue.8 Islam-inspired terrorism also received much publicity especially after the 911 attack. Furthermore, religious fundamentalists have tried their best to exert their decide through proper channels of government. For instance, American fundamentalists fielded candidates for elections.9 indeed the increasing do work that religious fundamentalists are trying to exert in politics and the unseemly violent happenings that they brought in the 21st century doubtlessly brought echoes of the 20th century European Fascism which brought about not a ll the 2nd World War but also the holocaust.However, to brand 21st century religious fundamentalism as the new fascism is not only incorrect but also unjustified. In the spare-time activity paragraphs, I will proceed to show the differences between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism.21st century religious fundamentalism does not contain elements of racism, anti-semitism or the belief in the guess of a master race. It also holds no faith in eugenics. Furthermore, it is also an ideology that does not preach upon imperialism, militarism or world domination. All the above elements are defining attributes of 20th century European Fascism. The mere present that religious fundamentalism does not believe in all these attributes made the mark of it as a new form of fascism unjustified.Many religious fundamentalists believe that policy-making power should be subordinated to religious power whereby the Bishop, the Rabbi, or the Ayatollah should be abl e to make the final decision on societal issues.10 The best case scenario for religious fundamentalists would be as in the case of Iran where they in truth govern however, compromises are made between religious fundamentalists and secular authorities.11 This belief that political power should be subordinate to religious power is of execute the direct opposite of fascism whereby churches (religion) should be subordinate to the state.21st century religious fundamentalism also possess other aspects in their ideology that is absent in 20th century European Fascism. Some of these attributes are otherworldliness and messianic spirit (where fundamentalists are concerned with the sacred and devote energy only in activities consonant with the words of God), against science (rejecting critical interpretations of the Bible and Darwins evolutionary theory), belief in the supernatural, moralism and the subordination of women.12After showing the differences between 21st century religious fundam entalism and 20th century European Fascism, I will like to conclude that to brand the former as new fascism is not only unfair but incorrect. Next, this paper shall argue for 21st century religious fundamentalism to be accorded its rightful status as an ideology. in advance I start defending my belief that religious fundamentalism is an ideology, I will like to provide the definitions of political theory and political philosophy. This is because of the commonly standardised usage of ideology, theory and philosophy and thus a clear notation between the three terms will be helpful to my argument. governmental philosophy is defined as a disinterested search for the principles of the ripe(p) state and the good society.13 Political theory has been defined as disinterested search for knowledge of political and social reality.14 Thus many scholars claimed that political philosophy is a prescriptive theory piece of music political theory is an empirical theory.15 Political ideology co ntains both the normative and empirical propositions.16 Thus, I will now start my argument by looking at the characteristics of an ideology and how religious fundamentalism actually fits these characteristics and rejects any suggestions that religious fundamentalism is only a philosophy or a theory.Ideologies renegade in conditions of crisis and in sections of society to whom the hitherto prevailing outlook has bring about unacceptable17 This accounts for the resurgence of religious fundamentalism in the late 20th to 21st century(similar to how European Fascism evolved) where social problems in westbound countries such as Britain and America have caused evangelicals to organize pressure groups to petition against abortion laws and other problems such as pornography. This further explains the popularity of political Islam in the Middle eastern joined States as it is the only other viable solution to the secular ideologies propagated by the West.An ideology is more than just ideas it is also actions based upon those ideas.18 21st century religious fundamentalism can be seen to fulfill this criterion as many examples show this. One example will be the arrangement of Iran as an Islamic state and in its latest issue of Iran fooling Iran reiterated that it will still maintain its fundamentalist ways despite pressures from the United States.19 another(prenominal) example will be Evangelicals forming pressure groups to translate their ideas into actions. political theory includes both empirical and normative elements-empirical assertions that certain conditions exist, and normative assertions that a certain political order is to be preferred.20 21st century religious fundamentalism does possess this quality and one instance will be how Islamic fundamentalist view the Israel issue where they see Israel as a occidental creation due to no fault of their own and sought not to recognize the status quo but to take steps to revise it. Another example will be Islamic f undamentalists view of the United States role in the Middle East.Ideology tends to be exclusive, absolute, and universal. 2121st century Religious Fundamentalism contains various different sects, for instance, evangelicalism and Islamic fundamentalism and thus could not lay claim to this criterion. However, there are indeed common attributes within religious fundamentalism such as the inerrancy of the Written Word and the subordination of political power. Furthermore, within the different varieties of religious fundamentalism, one can points out that evangelicalism and Islamic fundamentalism is by itself, exclusive, absolute and universal.Lastly, Ideologies look to elicit a response of commitment and obligation on the fiber of the adherents. Again, this criterion is easily satisfied by 21st century religious fundamentalism. This can be seen in the 911 suicide bombing of the twin towers by terrorists inspired by Political Islam. To pursue jihad, Islamic extremists are willing to gi ve up their lives for a greater good. On a more moderate note, ideologies certainly influence evangelicals who try to fight against social laws that their ideology deem inappropriate.After showing the ability of 21st century religious fundamentalism of fulfilling the various criteria of an ideology, I can safely conclude that 21st century religious fundamentalism is an ideology and not a political philosophy or a political theory. In this last part of the paper, I will provide the basis of its mass appeal.The basis of 21st century religious fundamentalisms mass appeal must be its political vision of the world and the kind of a new society that it can bring to the world. Faced with social problems such as rising abhorrence rates, teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in the Western countries, evangelical activists draw strength from its ideology and attempt to fight all these social problems through the formation of pressure groups pressuring and cajoling the government to make impro vements in all realms of lives, from abolishing abortion to anti-pornography laws to religious education in school.These actions by evangelical activists from their eyeshot can be seen not only as morally reward but also efforts made that adhere to their religious beliefs. Political Islams appeal in the Middle East can also be attributed to the erosion of traditional values brought about by modernization.22 Furthermore, complicated by the colonial experience, the failure of secular nationalism, the Israel creation and unhealthy US interferences in the region, political Islam remains a very attractive alternative to western ideas.( the reason been that Islam cover all aspects of lives and offer solutions to just about everything)In conclusion, this paper has shown the similarities and the differences between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism and also argued that to call religious fundamentalism new fascism is not only incorrect but unjustified. This paper has also argued for 21st century religious fundamentalism to be considered as an ideology through the demonstration of it fulfilling the various criteria of an ideology. Lastly, this paper has provided the writers perception for the basis of 21st century religious fundamentalism mass appeal.BibliographyAndrew Heywood, Politics, second edition, palgrave foundations, 2002Aristotle A. Kallis, The Fascism contributor, first edition, Routledge, 2003Graham E. Fuller, The prox of Political Islam, palgrave, 2003J. Christopher Soper, Evangelical Christianity in the United States and Great Britain, Macmillian, 1994Reo M. Christenson, Ideologies and modern politics, first edition, Fletcher and Son Ltd, 1972Roy C. Macridis and Mark Hulliung, Contemporary Political Ideologies, Movements and Regimes,sixth edition, HarperCollins College Publishers, 1996http// Iran insouciant Newspaper copyright,2005, 20/03/061 Andrew Heywood, Politics, second editio n, palgrave foundations, 2002, p. 632 Roy C. Macridis and Mark Hulliung, Contemporary Political Ideologies, Movements and Regimes,sixth edition, HarperCollins College Publishers, 1996, p.2333 Hulluing, p. 2334 Hulluing, p. 2345 Aristotle A. Kallis, The Fascism Reader, first edition, Routledge, 2003, p.2946 Reo M. Christenson, Ideologies and modern politics. first edition, Fletcher and Son Ltd, 1972, p. 607 Graham E. Fuller, The Future of Political Islam, palgrave, 2003 p. 788 Fuller, p. 789 Fuller, p. 7810 Hulluing, p. 23311 Hulluing, p. 23312 Hulluing, p. 23313 Christenson, p. 714 Christenson, p. 715 Christenson, p. 816 Christenson, p. 817 Christenson, p. 918 J. Christopher Soper, Evangelical Christianity in the United States and Great Britain,Macmillian,1994, p.2619 http// Iran Daily Newspaper copyright,2005, 20/03/0620 Christenson, p. 1121 Christenson, p. 1122 Fuller, p. 68

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