Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Assess Sociological Explanations of Changes in the Status of Childhood
churlhood is soci entirelyy construted, this means it is only a tender concept and the only reason that baby birdishness exists is beca intent society makes it that way. Over time puerility has changed as assorted norms and values over each century of feel have been different and is unperturbed changing at present. Also in different places of the world at that place be different cultures and ethics so and then their veiw of childhood will in like manner be different. As Wagg (1992) states childishness is socially constructed.It is, in other words, what members of particular societies, at particular time, and in particular places, say it is. There is no single universal childhood, go through by all. So, childhood isnt natural and should be distinguished from mere biologic immaturity. However childhood has not always been come acrossled like this as in pre-industrial times Aries (1960) argues that the idea of childhood did not exist in brief after being weaned, the child entered wider society on much the identical terms as an adult.However childhood has changed over time and as it says in Item A The development of industrial society meant that childrens feelings were increasingly confined, disciplined, and regulated by adults. In historical times law often made no distinction between children and adults and as Shorter (1975) argues that high death rates encouraged indifference and neglect, especially towards infants. Childhood is much different directly as although neglect is still present, there are laws imposed to protect children, much(prenominal) as the 1989 Child protective covering Act.The abut Of Progress impression would agree that childhood is bust now than it was delinquent to laws like this. According to sociologist Aries childhood gradually began to break through from the 13th century onwards, as schools specialized more in belief the young since the Compulsory Schooling Act 1880 was imposed leading children to take mo re educated as adults. This was thought to be the influence of the per air as they started to see children as fragile creatures of god in deal of protection. Childrens clothing similarly began to change, as before there was no distinction between adults and children.However most sociologists have criticized Aries for arguing childhood did not exist in the past. Pollock (1983) for example argues that society in the middle ages simply had a different notion of childhood from todays. The March Of Progress view argues that today children in occidental societies has been steadily up(a) and today it is better than it has ever been. Aries and Shorter both hold this view as they argue todays children are more valued, better cared for, protected, educated, enjoy better health, and have more rights than those of previous generations.Due to this more child centered society there are higher living standards and littler family sizes which gives governments more money to offer free health c are. However The fight View with sociologists such as the Marxists and Feminists dispute this. They argue that society is establish on a conflict between different social groups, such as social classes or genders. This view would see inequalities among children, as they still remain unprotected and badly cared for.Gender and ethnic differences may also breathe as for example boys are generally allowed more freedom than girls, and also from Brannens (1994) study of 16-16 year olds found that Asian parents were more probably than other parents to be strict towards their daughters. There are also many another(prenominal) class inequalities between children as according to Woodroffe (1993) children of unskilled manual workers are over three times more likely to suffer from hyperactivity and four times more likely to experience conduct disorders than the children of professionals.There are also major inequalities of power between children and adults. March of Progress writers argue that adults use this power for the benefit and protection of children, for example by passing laws against child labor. However, critics such as Firestone (1979) and Holt (1974) argue that this is an excuse for new forms of oppression and control. heedlessness and abuse towards children still occurs in society today as it did in pre-industrial times. Adult control over children can take the extreme form of physical neglect, or physical, sexual, or emotional abuse.Some may say due to figures from charities such as Child Line rising there is a dark side to family life, where children are victims. This shows in some cases the status of children hasnt changed over time. Childhood has changed more in other ways such as parents have more control over childrens aloofness as there is increasingly close surveillance over children in public spaces such as shopping centres, especially in times when they should be in school.However in contrast to this Katz (1993) describes how rural Sudanese children roam freely both within the village and several kilometers out of doors it. This shows that changes can still occur but not in some places of the world. Adults in todays society also can control childrens daily routines, for example when they get up, go to bed, have breakfast, etc. Whereas in historical times this wouldnt have been an issue. Adults exercise wondrous control over childrens bodies including how they sit, walk, and run, what they wear, hairstyles etc. hereas in some non-industrial cultures this may not be an issue, and therefore giving children more freedom. Some sociologists such as Postman (1994) argue that childhood is disappearing at a dazzling speed as he says by giving children the akin rights as adults, the disappearance of childrens traditional unsupervised games, the growing semblance of adults and childrens clothing and even committing adult crimes lies in the rise and light upon of print culture and its replacement by television culture.This i s evident as unlike the printed word, television does not require special skills to access it, and therefore make it available to everyone, including children and this also shows in Item A as it says childhood and adulthood is once again becoming blurred. conflicting Postman, Opie (1993) argues that childhood is not disappearing, based on a lifetime of interrogation she argues there is strong evidence of the continued existence of a assure childrens culture over many years.Child liberationists argue that modern western childhood is oppressive and children today are subject to adult authority. western sandwich notions are also being globalised, as international humanitarianism and upbeat agencies have exported and imposed on the rest of the world. In this view childhood is not disappearing, but spreading throughout the world. Overall, there has been many changes in childhood and childrens status over the years, and is different in all parts of the world due to ethics and culture. Many sociologists have different viewpoints about childhood as a life stage.